KRISHNAPRIYA M, NAYAK R K, ALLAHUDEEN S, BHUVANACHANDRA A, DADHWAL V K, JHA C S, SHESHASAI M V R, SASMAL S K, PRASAD K V S R
045165 KRISHNAPRIYA M, NAYAK R K, ALLAHUDEEN S, BHUVANACHANDRA A, DADHWAL V K, JHA C S, SHESHASAI M V R, SASMAL S K, PRASAD K V S R (Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Balanagar- 500 037, Hyderabad) : Seasonal variability of tropospheric CO2 over India based on model simulation, satellite retrieval and in-situ observation. J Earth Syst Sci 2020, 129(1), 10.1007/s12040-020-01478-x.
In this study, investigation of the seasonal cycle of the tropospheric CO2 concentration over India was carried out using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model, Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) retrievals, and in-situ measurements. The model simulation is highly coherent with the satellite and in-situ datasets, and it shows a distinct seasonal cycle of the tropospheric CO2 tendency over India with a negative phase (decreasing concentration) during April–August and a positive phase (increasing concentration) during September–March. The model diagnostics were analyzed to estimate budgets of the surface layer CO2, up to 650 hPa pressure level, for the two-phases of the seasonal cycle. A mean tendency, equivalent to −0.70 ppmv month−1, observed during April–August, which results from the loss of CO2 content in the surface layer through horizontal advection (−2.25 ppmv month−1) and vertical diffusion (−0.20 ppmv month−1), that dominates the gain from vertical advection (1.53 ppmv month−1). The negative contribution of horizontal advection in this period comes from the transport of CO2 depleted air-parcels over the oceanic region to India by the southwest monsoon winds and the positive contributions of vertical advection comes from upwelling of CO2 enriched air-parcels. The mean tendency, equivalent to 1.01 ppmv month−1, during September–March results from the gain through vertical advection (0.78 ppmv month−1) and horizontal advection (0.37 ppmv month−1) and a small contribution of vertical diffusion (−0.15 ppmv month−1). In this period, positive contribution of horizontal advection is due to the transport of CO2 enriched air-parcels from the southeast Asian region to India by north-east monsoon winds. At the annual scale, CO2 content of the surface layer over India has a net gain of 0.75 GtC that comes from 14.31 GtC through vertical advection that exceeds the loss due to horizontal advection (−11.10 GtC) and vertical diffusion processes (−2.46 GtC). This net gain is almost 85% higher than the input of 0.4 GtC through surface fluxes, which composed of 0.61 GtC anthropogenic emission and −0.21 GtC net terrestrial ecosystem exchanges. Additional sensitivity experiment was carried out to elucidate the semi-annual features of the seasonal cycle of CO2 for north India, in contrast to the annual characteristics of the seasonal cycle for south India in relation to the GOSAT observation.